Studies in theWord
Studies in theWord

Galatians 3:13-14

CHRIST REDEEMED US FROM THE LAW’S CURSE WITH RESULT

GALATIANS 3:13-14

 

Jonathan Koehn

Christ Redeemed Us From The Law’s Curse With Result

(Exegesis of Galatians 3:13-14)

 

Galatians 3:13-14

13 Χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ἐξηγόρασεν ἐκ τῆς κατάρας τοῦ νόμου γενόμενος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατάρα, ὅτι γέγραπται· ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου,

14 ἵνα εἰς τὰ ἔθνη ἡ εὐλογία τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ γένηται ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ἵνα τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ πνεύματος λάβωμεν διὰ τῆς πίστεως.

Ι. Translation and Immediate Context

1) Translation

(v.13) Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law by becoming in our behalf cursed, because it has been written; “Cursed is each man hanging upon wood,”

(v.14) in order that to the nations the blessing of Abraham should be in Christ Jesus, with a result that the promise of the Spirit we should receive through faith.

2) Immediate Context:

Galatians 3:13-14 is the end of the immediate context of Galatians 3:5-14. It also addresses one of the questions from Galatians 3:1-4, “This is the only thing I want to find out from you: did you receive the Spirit by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?”[1] Galatians 3:13-14 is part of this near context. However, the immediate context is Galatians 3:5-14 to which we turn to now.

The immediate context states a very similar question in Galatians 3:5, “So then, does He who provides you with the Spirit and works miracles among you, do it by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?” Paul uses this question as a starting point to build his argumentation toward the answer to this question.[2] He goes straight to father Abraham in Galatians 3:6 whom the Jews[3],[4] would recognize and points out from Genesis 15:6 that Abraham received righteousness because of believing in God. As Paul continues to build the argument in verse 7 he uses ἄρα, “therefore,” pointing out that it is not one’s lineage but one’s faith that makes them sons of Abraham. Paul in Galatians 3:8 goes back to the Old Testament with the phrase “All the nations will be blessed in you.” this time to Genesis 12:3 and possibly 18:18. He once again used Scripture with which the Jews would be familiar. He continues building in Galatians 3:9 with the ὥστε “so then,” by identifying “the blessed with Abraham” as “those who are of faith.” He specifically identifies Abraham as “the believer.”

His argumentation in Galatians 3:10 switches gears from those of faith to those under the works of the Law. These are under a curse. Once again he uses Scripture, Deuteronomy 27:26, to drive the point home. One should note that it is not just the ordinance of circumcision because the phrase, the book of the Law, is referring to Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. One must perform all of  these books, the book of the Law. If one is performing the works of the Law, one is under the curse of performing all of the Law. One does not get to pick and choose parts of the Law it is the whole book of the Law.

He continues building his argumentation in Galatians 3:11 now with the concept that the Law does not declare a person righteous before God. Once again he uses Scripture, Habakkuk 2:4 “the righteous man shall live by faith.”

He builds onto his argumentation in Galatians 3:12 by addressing the thought of following the Law while being a believer[5] by noting that the Law is not of faith. He continues to address the Jews using Scripture this time from Leviticus 18:5, “He who practices them shall live by them.”

All of these points of argumentation are building up to Galatians 3:13-14 the conclusion to the immediate context based on the question from verse 5. We will see in detail through the commentary portion of this paper how Christ redeemed the believer from the Law’s curse. Christ’s redemptive work then brings the believer the blessing of Abraham which includes a result. The result answers the question from verse 5, “So then, does He who provides you with the Spirit and works miracles among you, do it by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?”

This whole passage of Galatians 3:5-14 points back to the overall theme of Galatians which Paul addresses in Galatians 1:8, “But if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary to what we have preached to you, he is to be accursed!” Paul preached the gospel of faith in Christ Jesus not the gospel of works of the Law. Please keep the immediate context of Galatians 3:5-14, the near context of Galatians 3:1-4 and the book context of Galatians 1:8 in mind as we enter into Galatians 3:13-14.

ΙΙ. Exegetical Idea

What was the purpose that Christ redeemed us, the believers, from the Law’s curse? The purpose was in order that we should receive the blessing in Christ Jesus which results in our receiving the Spirit through faith.

III. Exegetical Outline

  1. Christ redeemed us from the Law’s curse. (v.13a)
  2. Because it has been written in Scripture. (v. 13b)
    Α. The purpose is the blessing in Christ Jesus. (v.14a)

a. We should receive the Spirit is the result. (v.14b)

 

IV. Commentary

  1. Christ redeemed us from the Law’s curse. (v.13a)

Paul now builds the argumentation with He who was prophesied the Χριστὸς, Christ, the Messiah, the Anointed One, “fulfiller of Israelite expectation of a deliverer.”[6] He, Christ, is the subject and ἡμᾶς, us, is the direct object. Us refers to Paul (a Jewish believer), the believing brothers with him, and the churches of Galatia (made up of Jewish and Gentile believers). Galatians 1:2, “and all the brethren who are with me, To the churches of Galatia:” and 3:1, “You foolish Galatians…” points to the Jewish and Gentile believing audience of the letter to the Galatians.[7],[8] Everyone, whether Jew or Gentile believer, is covered in Galatians 3:13-14.

Christ ἐξηγόρασεν, redeemed, us, the Jewish and Gentile believers. “Abbott-Smith’s Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament”[9] shows that ἐξαγοράζω is a compound word which is ἐξ-αγοράζω coming from ἐκ and αγοράζω. This word breaks down as ἐκ which is “from out of, from”[10] plus αγοράζω which is “to buy in the market”[11] therefore “to buy from out of the market.”[12]

Christ bought us from out of the market which in this context is τῆς κατάρας τοῦ νόμου, the curse of the Law. We find what the curse of the Law is in Galatians 3:10, “. . . ‘CURSED IS EVERYONE WHO DOES NOT ABIDE BY ALL THINGS WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OF THE LAW, TO PERFORM THEM.’” Galatians 5:3 also refers to the curse, “And I testify again to every man who receives circumcision, that he is under obligation to keep the whole Law” The curse of the Law is that one must do each part of the whole Law without fail from birth until death. Galatians 3:10 defines the Law as “the book of the Law,” which is Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy which has 613 commandments (which includes the ten commandments) and ordinances. The Law was given to the sons of Israel[13], the Jews[14]. The sons of Israel, the Jews, agreed to do it see Exodus 19:3-8[15] and 24:3-8[16] which Dr. Olander pointed out while looking over this paper. However, the Law was not given to the Gentile believers nor is it required for them to do it see Acts 15:22-29.[17],[18] It must be noted that every unbeliever[19] is affected by the Law which should point them to Jesus Christ as is shown in Galatians 3:22, “But the Scripture has shut up everyone under sin, so that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.”

We see in the phrase γενόμενος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατάρα, by becoming in our behalf cursed, how Christ bought the believers from out of the curse of the Law. Γενόμενος, by becoming, is an adverbial instrumental participle of ἐξηγόραςεν, redeemed, this participle points out the means of how the believer is redeemed.[20] The preposition and pronoun ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν point out Christ substituting Himself in our, the believers, behalf. Christ redeemed us, the believer, from the curse of the Law by becoming “instead of us”[21] cursed.

Christ became cursed in our behalf.[22] Christ became cursed not a curse. This word could be translated as a curse however context and other uses of this word point to cursed as being preferred. “A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature”[23] lists κατάρας, cursed in Hebrews 6:8 and κατάρας, accursed in 2 Peter 2:14 making cursed a possible option. Galatians 3:10 also when referring to the curse of the Law it says “For as many as are of the works of the Law are under a curse. . .” not that they are a curse. Christ did not become a curse but became cursed. It should also be noted that Christ substituted Himself in our behalf not in the curse of the Law’s behalf.

Paul throughout the immediate context often referenced Scripture. He uses a reference to Scripture once again to show his point to the Jewish believing audience in specific and the Gentile believing audience in general.

  1. Because it has been written in Scripture. (v. 13b)

Paul references Scripture specifically Deuteronomy 21:23 which says, “his corpse shall not hang all night on the tree, but you shall surely bury him on the same day (for he who is hanged is accursed of God), . . .” Paul is using this coordinate causal clause to give the reason[24] for his previous statement.[25] Paul uses Scriptural authority in stating Christ redeemed us from the Law’s curse. The Scriptural authority would ring true with the Jewish audience.[26] The ὁτι could lean this clause toward subordinating. However, since there is the indicative verb γέγραπται, it has been written, we should see this as coordinating along with Paul’s thrust over and over to the Jews using the authority of Scripture. [27],[28] This clause explains the reason why Christ’s becoming cursed in our behalf redeemed us from the curse of the Law.[29] The word ἐπικατάρατος means “[pertaining] to being under divine condemnation, cursed.”[30] The word ἑστιν, is, is assumed in this phrase in an equating fashion. Next, the word πᾶς means each, every, or all[31] that is whoever is in this situation is under divine condemnation or cursed. Ὁ κρεμάμενος, the man hanging, specifically ἐπι ξύλου, upon wood is cursed. The word ξύλου is a general word for wood (note it can be used to refer to wood, pole, club, cudgel, stocks, cross, or tree.)[32] Paul is explaining the reason why Christ being cursed redeemed us from the curse of the Law which goes back to the near context of Galatians 3:1, “You foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as crucified?” The word ἐσταυρωμένος, crucified, means in this context to fasten to a cross, crucify.[33] Christ was hung on a wooden cross thereby becoming in our behalf cursed while also becoming our substitute.

2A. The purpose is the blessing in Christ Jesus. (v.14a)

This clause starts off with ἵνα, in order that,[34] which is subordinating.[35] The ἵνα phrase is subordinate to Christ redeeming us from the curse of the Law.[36] Note, that a man who is cursed on wood is a general statement in the Old Testament and would not directly apply to the blessing of Abraham unless it is combined with Christ becoming cursed for us, the believers. This subordinating combination can be seen going through the ὅτι clause back to the independent clause; Christ redeemed us from the Law’s curse.

The prepositional phrase of the direct object is given next εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, to the nations. Ἔθνη is referring specifically to the Gentiles and generally to the Jews. Ἔθνη is not only referring to the Gentiles. Paul a Jew[37] is included grammatically by way of the word us in the phrase Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law. This blessing of Abraham is not just to the Gentiles but also to the Jews so nations in  more general sense is to be used. Nicoll points this out as well, “. . . the extension of the blessing to Gentiles as well as Jews; . . .”[38] However, one may use Gentiles to focus in on the context that the Gentiles are included with the Jews or to stress that redemption has come to the Gentiles. However, this is not saying that the Jews are not included.[39] Also, note in the last usage of ἔθνη before Galatians 3:14 which is found in Galatians 3:8 ἔθνη is translated as “nations” in various translations.[40]

Ἡ εὐλογία,  the blessing, there is the blessing to the nations specifically τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ, of Abraham.  The blessing of Abraham is found in Galatians 3:8-9, “The Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, ‘ALL THE NATIONS WILL BE BLESSED IN YOU.’ So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer.”[41] The blessing of Abraham is that those who believe are justified, declared righteous, with Abraham, the believer.[42], [43] 

The blessing of Abraham γένηται, should be, found ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, in Christ Jesus. No one received this blessing of Abraham without Christ Jesus because only in Christ Jesus could it be fulfilled as is shown in Galatians 3:16, “Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. He does not say, ‘And to seeds,’ as referring to many, but rather to one, ‘And to your seed,’ that is, Christ.” The blessing of Abraham to the nations should be in Christ Jesus. Because only by believing in Christ Jesus can one be justified, declared righteous. One is not justified by the Law as Galatians 2:15-16 points out; “‘We are Jews by nature and not sinners from among the Gentiles; nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the Law; since by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified.” Christ, the “fulfiller of Israelite expectation of a deliverer,”[44] was the Messiah who the Jews were waiting for in their expectation of physical deliverance. Galatians 3:14 points to Christ delivering the Jews spiritually from the Law’s curse. The name Jesus according to Matthew 1: 21 means, “‘. . . , for He will save His people from their sins.’” The Jews struggled with the sin of pride in regards to doing the Law as Romans 3:27 points to; “Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith.”  Jew or Gentile can only have the blessing of Abraham by means of believing in Christ Jesus not by the Law as Galatians 3:11 points out, “Now that no one is justified by the Law before God is evident; for, ‘THE RIGHTEOUS MAN SHALL LIVE BY FAITH.’”

This all points back through the authority of Scripture[45] to Christ redeeming us, the believers, from the curse of the Law because Christ became cursed for us in order that to the nations the blessing of Abraham should be in Christ Jesus. All of this has a result which is also the answer to verse 5.

2Aa. We should receive the Spirit is the result. (v.14b)

Once again we see the subordinating conjunction ἵνα.[46] There is no καί which means it is not coordinating but subordinating as a result of the first ἵνα, hina clause. Dr. Robert Gromacki points out, “Technically the second purpose is a result of the fulfillment of the first purpose. Note the double usage of hina and no connective (kai).”[47] This result[48] of the ἵνα clause points back to the blessing of Abraham which is justification by faith in Christ Jesus and answers verse 5, “So then, does He who provides you with the Spirit and works miracles among you, do it by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?”

The word order emphasizes the direct object which is τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν, the promise. There is the promise of, τοῦ πνεύματος, the Spirit. It is not till Galatians 3:2 when Spirit is used for the first time in the letter to the Galatians which says; “This is the only thing I want to find out from you: did you receive the Spirit by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?” Paul pointing out the Holy Spirit is very important to the book of Galatians because we are no longer under the Law having been redeemed from its curse.

Τοῦ πνεύματος, the Spirit, is the guide not the Law.[49] Λάβωμεν, we, the believers, should receive, the promise of the Spirit. The question Paul posed in Galatians 3:2 and 3:5 is answered in regards to receiving the Spirit. Paul gives the answer which is διὰ τῆς πίστεως, through faith. The answer to Galatians 3:2 is that the Jewish believers and Gentile believers both receive the Holy Spirit through faith, not by the works of the Law. The answer to Galatians 3:5 is that “He who provides you with the Spirit . . .” does this through faith. The blessing of Abraham to the nations is through faith in Christ Jesus.[50], [51]

Summary

What a logical sequence that directly deals with the Jewish believers who want to drag the Gentile believers under the curse of the Law. The curse of the Law is over for the Jewish and Gentile believers alike. The believer is now in Christ Jesus through the blessing of Abraham through faith. The believer must walk in the Spirit as Galatians 5:16 says, “But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh.” It is time to stop walking in the flesh, which can be the pride of living according to the Law. The believer must walk in the Spirit. The Spirit is the result of Christ redeeming us from the curse of the Law. 

 

 

Appendix

  1. Diagram

13

  Χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ß

ἐξηγόρασεν

ἐκ τῆς κατάρας

τοῦ νόμου

γενόμενος

      ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατάρα,

 

ὅτι

γέγραπται·

ἐπικατάρατος = πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος

                                 ἐπὶ ξύλου,

14

ἵνα

εἰς τὰ ἔθνη ß

εὐλογία

τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ

      γένηται

ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ,

 

ἵνα

τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν ß

τοῦ πνεύματος

            λάβωμεν

διὰ τῆς πίστεως. 

 

 

  1. Mechanical Outline of the Entire Book of Galatians
Galatians

1:1-5 Paul’s greeting to the churches of Galatia

 

1:6-12 Another gospel that is false

6-8 Only the gospel of Christ

9-10 Paul serves God, not men

 

1:11-17 The gospel that comes from Jesus Christ

11-14 The gospel that comes from Jesus Christ

15-17 God was working in the life of Paul

18-24 The gospel that comes from Jesus Christ results
in the glorification of God

 

2:1-10 The gospel, to the uncircumcised, to the Gentiles

1-3 Paul uses Titus as an illustration

4-5 The preservation of the truth of the gospel

6-8 The direction of God in the gospel

9-10 The grace of God in a life

 

2:11-21 Be ready to protect the truth

11-14 God helps Peter through Paul

15-16 How someone can be justified by God

17-19 A purpose of the Law of Moses

20-21 My “I” cannot do it only the grace of God

 

3:1-4 Two key questions to the foolish Galatians
1. Did you receive the Spirit by works or faith?
2. After beginning in the Spirit are you being complete in the flesh?

 

3:5-14 The Spirit is received by faith.

5-9 The men of faith are blessed with the faith of
Abraham.

10-14 Redeemed from the curse of the Law by Christ

 

3:15-29 Slave under the Law or Free through faith in
Christ Jesus

15-18 The promise of God to Abraham

19-22 The promise of the Holy Spirit

23-26 The Law guides, supervises, and disciplines an
unbeliever toward Christ

27-29 The spiritual descendants of Abraham are of
Christ and in Christ

4:1-11 The sons of God

1-7 God can be your Dad, your Daddy!

8-11 The believers from the Jews and Gentiles in

Galatia are causing fear for Paul.

 

4:12-20 Paul cares for the children of God in Galatia

12-14 God wants the believers in Galatia to remember
Paul
15-20 The attitude of the believer

 

4:21-31 The two sons of Abraham

21-23 The decisions of Abraham

24-31 The identity of the brothers

 

5:1-13 We are called to liberty

1-3 The spiritual abolitionist Paul

4-6 By which do we have justification by the Law or by
Faith?

7-10 The good race of the faith

11-13 Believers are called to liberty

 

5:14-26 In the Spirit you all must walk and the lust of the
flesh no never you all might fulfill

14-15 We love, and we do not destroy

16-18 The inner battle

19-21 WARNING for the believer

22-23 The fruit of the Holy Spirit

24-26 We should walk according to our identity, Christ
Jesus

 

6:1-5 Of one another the burdens you all must carry and
so you all will fulfill the law of Christ

1 How to restore

2-5 The best care

 

6:6-10 Sowing for the Spirit

6-8 Sowing for the Spirit

9-10 Sow with the seed of doing good

 

6:11-18 The conclusion to the letter to the Galatians

11-13 Watch out for false brothers

14-16 A new creation (the believer in Jesus Christ)

17-18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abbot-Smith, G. Abbott-Smith’s Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament. Electronic Edition. theWORD.net. Edinburgh: London, 1921

Aland, Barbara; Aland, Kurt; Karavidopoulos, Johannes; Martini, Carlo M; Metzger, Bruce M. Novum Testamentum Graece. 28th revised ed. Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart, 2012

Aland, Barbara; Aland, Kurt; Karavidopoulos, Johannes; Martini, Carlo M, Metzger, Bruce. The Greek New Testament. 5th revised ed. Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart, 2014

Brown, Francis; Driver, Samuel Rolles; Briggs, Charles Augustus. Brown-Driver-Briggs’ Hebrew Definitions. Electronic Edition. theWORD.net, 2012

Burton, Ernest De Witt. A Critical And Exegetical Commentary On The Epistle To The Galatians. Electronic Edition. theWORD.net, 2014

Constable, Thomas L. The Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas L. Constable. Electronic Edition. theWORD.net, 2009

Danker, Frederick William; Bauer, Walter. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Electronic Edition. theWORD.net. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000

Dana, H. E.; Mantey, Julius R. A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1994

Greenlee, J. Harold. Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism. revised ed. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1995

Gromacki, Dr. Robert. Stand Fast in Liberty An Exposition of Galatians. Woodlands, Texas: Kress Christian Publications, 2002

Leblanc, Pierre. Greek to Hebrew and Hebrew to Greek, Dictionary of Septuagint Words. Electronic Edition. theWORD.net, 2012

Lenski, R. C. H. The Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistles to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, and to the Philippians. Electronic Edition. Columbus, Ohio: Lutheran Book Concern, 1937

Liddell, Henry George; Scott Robert; Jones, Henry Stuart.  Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of  Classical Greek. Electronic Edition. theWORD.net. Oxford: Claredon Press, 1940

New American Standard Updated Edition Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. Electronic Edition.  theWORD.net. La Habra, California: The Lockman Foundation, 1998

Nicoll, William Robertson. Expositor’s Greek New Testament. Electronic Edition. WordModules.com. New York: George H. Doran Company. 2012

Mickelson, Jonathan K.  Mickelson’s Enhanced Strong’s Dictionaries of the Greek and Hebrew Testaments. 2nd ed. Electronic Edition. theWORD.net: LivingSon Press, 2015

Olander, Dr. Dave, Telephone conversation on August 29th of 2017

Strong, James. Strong’s Hebrew and Greek Dictionary – Updated. Electronic Edition. WordModules.com, 2013

 Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics. China: Zondervan, 1996

Wuest, Kenneth S. Wuest’s Word Studies From the Greek New Testament Volume One. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1966

 

EndNotes:

[1] Galatians 3:3 – All Biblical quotations are from the New American Standard Bible unless otherwise noted.

[2] Olander, Dr. Dave, Based on telephone conversation on August 29th of 2017.

[3] Mickelson, Jonathan K. , Mickelson’s Enhanced Strong’s Dictionaries of the Greek and Hebrew Testaments, 2nd ed. Electronic Edition (theWORD.net: LivingSon Press, 2015), (by extension, as a noun) a Jew, whether of biblical southern Judea or northern Israel. Belonging to Jacob, to the land of Israel, to all Judea and Jerusalem, and belonging to God (see Acts 21:39).

[4] Galatians 2:15 “We are Jews by birth and not Gentile sinners,” NET Bible

[5] Believer: Jew or Gentile who believes in the good news as found in 1 Corinthians 15:1-4.

[6] Danker, Frederick William; Bauer, Walter, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Electronic Edition theWORD.net (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), Χριστὸς.

[7] Lenski, R.C.H., The Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistles to the Galatians, to the Ephesians and to the Philippians, Electronic Edition (Columbus, Ohio: Lutheran Book Concern, 1973), “When Paul says ‘us’ and in v. 14 that ‘we’ receive he refers to himself, to all the brethren who were with him at the time of this writing (1:2), and to all the Galatian readers, the great majority of whom were former Gentiles.” pg. 148.

[8] Gromacki, Dr. Robert, Stand Fast in Liberty An Exposition of Galatians, (Woodlands, Texas: Kress Christian Publications, 2002),  “The personal pronoun refers to both believing Jews and Gentiles, although it pays special attention to those who found themselves under the curse of the law through their attempts to gain justification by legalistic effort.” pg. 95-96

[9] Abbot-Smith, G. Abbott-Smith’s Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, Electronic Edition theWORD.net (Edinburgh: London, 1921)

[10] Abbot-Smith, Abbott-Smith’s Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, ἐκ from out of, from.

[11] Abbot-Smith, Abbott-Smith’s Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, ἀγοράζω 1. to frequent the ἀγορά 2. to buy in the market, purchase

[12] Wuest, Kenneth, Wuest’s Word Studies From the Greek New Testament Volume One, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1966), “The second word is the one Paul uses in the verse we are studying, exagorazo, to buy a slave out of the market place. The bondslave of the Lord Jesus is bought not only to be His bondslave, but he is bought out of the slave market, never to be put up for sale in any slave market. He becomes the bondslave of the Lord Jesus for time and for eternity.” – pg. 97 of Galatians section

[13] Israel was formerly known as Jacob. Also see Exodus 19:3-8.

[14] Olander, Dr. Dave, Based on a telephone conversation on August 29th of 2017.

[15] Exodus 19:3-8 “Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain, saying, “Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob and tell the sons of Israel: ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’ wings, and brought you to Myself. ‘Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine; and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel.” So Moses came and called the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which the LORD had commanded him. All the people answered together and said, “All that the LORD has spoken we will do!” And Moses brought back the words of the people to the LORD.”

[16] Exodus 24:1-8 “Then Moses came and recounted to the people all the words of the LORD and all the ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice and said, ‘All the words which the LORD has spoken we will do!’ Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD. Then he arose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. He sent young men of the sons of Israel, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as peace offerings to the LORD. Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and the other half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. Then he took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, ‘All that the LORD has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient!’ So Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, ‘Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words.’”

[17] Olander, Dr. Dave, Based on a telephone conversation on August 29th of 2017.

[18] Acts 15:22-29 “Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole church, to choose men from among them to send to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas–Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, leading men among the brethren, and they sent this letter by them, ‘The apostles and the brethren who are elders, to the brethren in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia who are from the Gentiles, greetings. ‘Since we have heard that some of our number to whom we gave no instruction have disturbed you with their words, unsettling your souls, it seemed good to us, having become of one mind, to select men to send to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. “Therefore we have sent Judas and Silas, who themselves will also report the same things by word of mouth. ‘For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these essentials: that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols and from blood and from things strangled and from fornication; if you keep yourselves free from such things, you will do well. Farewell.’”

[19] Unbeliever: Jew or Gentile who does not believe in the good news as found in 1 Corinthians 15:1-4.

[20] Dana, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament, Substitution,  pg. 228.

[21] Dana, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament, Substitution, “instead of us” pg. 111.

[22] Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, κατάρας “by becoming a curse-offering (or an object of a curse) in our behalf

[23] Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature.

[24] Wallace, Daniel B., Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, (China: Zondervan, 1996, “There are two questions to ask of a particular ὅτι clause: (1) Does it give the content (declarative) or the reason (causal) for what precedes? (2) Are the verb tenses in the ὅτι clause translated norally (causal), or shoud tey be moved back on ‘slot’ (declarative)?” pg. 460.

[25] Dana, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament, “A causal clause is one which states the ground or reason for the assertion contained in another.”, pg. 274

[26] Olander, Dr. Dave, Based on a telephone conversation on September 16th and 21st 2017.

[27] Olander, Dr. Dave, Based on a telephone conversation on September 16th of 2017.

[28] Dana, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament, “It is sometimes difficult to decide whether a clause is coordinate or subordinate. When the particle is γάρ, that usually fixes it as coordinate. If it is ὅτι, the clause is regularly subordinate, although there are a few apparent exceptions (cf. 1 Cor. 1:25; 10:17)” pg. 274.

[29] Olander, Dr. Dave, Based on comment in paper overview on September 16th 2017.

[30] Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, ἐπικατάρατος, ον.

[31] Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, πᾶς.

[32] Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, ξύλον,  ου,  τό.

[33] Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, σταυρόω.

[34] Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, “Purpose: in order that (indicates the goal or aim of an action); ἵνα, ὅπως, μήπως (the negative purpose), μήπου (negative purpose), and μήποτε (negative purpose)” pg. 762, Before the cross in time.

[35] Wallace, Daniel B., Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, “The most common subordinating conjunctions that usually govern the subjunctive mood are: ἵνα, ὅταν, ἐάν, ὅπως, ἕως, μή, and μήποτε.” pg. 669.

[36] Burton, Ernest De Witt, A Critical And Exegetical Commentary On The Epistle To The Galatians, Electronic Edition (theWORD.net, 2014), “In this clause and the following one the apostle states the purpose not of any of the subordinate elements of v. 13, but of the whole fact, especially the principal element, ἐξηγόρασεν … τοῦ νόμου.”, Galatians 3:14.

[37] Acts 21:39 “But Paul said, ‘I am a Jew of Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no insignificant city; and I beg you, allow me to speak to the people.’”

[38] Nicoll, William Robertson, Expositor’s Greek New Testament, Electronic Edition, WordModules.com (New York: George H. Doran Company, 2012).

[39] Olander, Dr. Dave, Based on a telephone conversation on August 29th of 2017.

[40] NASB, NKJV, NET, ESV2007, KJV, HCSB, and NIV

[41] Genesis 12:2-3- “And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing; And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.””, 18:17-18 – “The LORD said, “Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, since Abraham will surely become a great and mighty nation, and in him all the nations of the earth will be blessed?”

[42] Burton, A Critical And Exegetical Commentary On The Epistle To The Galatians, “By ἡ εὐλογία τοῦ Ἀβραάμ must be understood, in the light of vv. 8, 9, the blessing of justification by faith, which, according to Paul’s interpretation of Gen. 12:3 (cf. Gen. 28:4), was promised beforehand to the Gentiles, and which they shared with him.”, Galatians 3:14.

[43] Constable, Thomas L., The Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas L. Constable, Electronic Edition, (theWORD.net, 2009), “He was saying that obeying the Mosaic Law never results in the justification or sanctification of anyone, Jew or Gentile.”

[44] Danker, Frederick William; Bauer, Walter, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Electronic Edition theWORD.net (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), Χριστὸς.

[45] Olander, Dr. Dave, Based on comment in paper overview on September 16th 2017.

[46] Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, “The most common subordinating conjunctions that usually govern the subjunctive mood are: ἵνα, ὅταν, ἐάν, ὅπως, ἕως, μή, and μήποτε.” pg. 669.

[47] Gromacki, Dr. Robert, Stand Fast in Liberty An Exposition of Galatians, pg. 97.

[48] Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, “Result: so that, with the result that (gives the outcome or consequence of an action); ὥστε, ὡς, ὅτι, and less frequently, ἵνα” pg. 762.

[49] See Galatians chapters 4 and 5 for more on the Spirit versus the Law as the believers guide.

[50] Galatians 4:6 – “Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” ”

[51] Ephesians 1:13-14 – “In Him, you also, after listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation–having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise, who is given as a pledge of our inheritance, with a view to the redemption of [God’s own] possession, to the praise of His glory.”

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